Changes in Turkish art and craft education 1970-1990
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This dissertation is concerned with problems in art education and art teacher training in Turkeyfrom 1970. In particular, this study focuses on the changes which occurred between 1970 and1990, and their effects on the quality of training teachers and the teaching of art and craft insecondary schools.Socio-political events resulting in two military coups and a change of government affectedall education throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Higher education was reorganised in 1982following the new national constitution when the Higher Education Council became responsiblefor all higher institutions. In addition, all teacher training institutions previously controlled by theMinistry of National Education were placed under the universities. The aim of thisimplementation was to improve the quality of education. But the changes implemented in 1982have not necessarily led to an improvement in the quality of education, specifically art and crafteducation.This research examines the quality of art and craft education, via: structural changes in theuniversity faculty of education and the effect of these, administrative and content changes inthe department of art and craft, and the effect of these on the quality of art and craft teaching.A mixture of theoretical, archival, and documentary sources informs the initial sections,and interviews and a questionnaire reveals responses at university and school level.The research demonstrates that instability in the government, frequently changingadministrators, and lack of a scientific and well-planned educational policy led to ad hocremedies and caused a decline in the teaching profession, art education and art teachertraining. The research shows that the structural and content changes in the department of artand craft have not improved the quality as expected and have borne new problems.The dissertation proposes in the conclusion that establishing art and designdepartments, adding design and theoretical courses to curriculum, and establishing an‘Association of Art Educators’ or ‘Society of Education in Art and Design' might lead toimprovements in art education in schools. Finally the study consists of a draft scheme for thedepartment of art and craft including new contemporary courses in its curriculum.