Path-Loss Modeling for Wireless Sensor Networks A review of models and comparative evaluations
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Propagation models are used to abstract the actual propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves utilized for conveying information in a compact form (i.e., a model with a small number of parameters). The correct modeling of propagation and path loss is of paramount importance in wireless sensor network (WSN) system design and analysis . Most of the important performance metrics commonly employed for WSNs, such as energy dissipation, route optimization, reliability, and connectivity, are affected by the utilized propagation model. However, in many studies on WSNs, overly simplistic and unrealistic propagation models are used. One of the reasons for the utilization of such impractical propagation models is the lack of awareness of experimentally available WSN-specific propagation and path-loss models. In this article, necessary succint background information is given on general wireless propagation modeling, and salient WSN-specific constraints on path-loss modeling are summarized. Building upon the provided background, an overview of the experimentally verified propagation models for WSNs is presented, and quantitative comparisons of propagation models employed in WSN research under various scenarios and frequency bands are provided.