Nonlinear modelling and control of the flow over aerofoils using CFD simulations
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A simulation based approach for nonlinear dynamical modelling and feedback control of the drag to lift ratio for aerofoils is investigated through case studies involving NACA 23012, ag13 and b737a aerofoils. The flow around the aerofoils is studied via numerical solutions of the 2D Navier–Stokes (NS) equations. A standard computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver is extended to be able to measure desired feedback values and to apply a control input to the flow field. The proposed modelling and controlapproach is based on first determining the measurement points and injection points on the aerofoil for the control input. Then, to estimate the dynamical model, some input–output data are collected by injecting a chirp input flow to the field and saving the measurement data. Next a Hammerstein–Wiener (HW) type nonlinear dynamical model of the flow field is estimated using system identification. For control design, the nonlinear part of the model is eliminated by means of inverse functions, followed by the application of automated tuning methods to the linear part to obtain the closed-loop system. The results show that the designed feedback control system can reduce the drag to lift ratio considerably as compared to the unactuated case. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.