Model Testing of Francis-Type Hydraulic Turbines
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Every single turbine is custom-designed specifically to meet the requirements of a hydroelectric power plant. Performance of a designed turbine is validated, to some extent, by computational fluid dynamics simulations; however, experimental testing according to International Electrotechnical Commission standards is necessary to ensure performance and reliability. Model tests are performed on similar, small-scale models at test facilities that are specifically designed for this purpose. This article features one such facility, which is capable of testing the performance and cavitation of Francis-type turbines. Test procedures, measured parameters, measuring instruments, and calibration techniques are explained in detail.