Tackling in-camera downsizing for reliable camera id verification
Tandoğan, Sinan E.
Sencar, Hüsrev Taha
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The photo-response non-uniformity (PRNU) of an imaging sensor can be regarded as a biometric identifier unique to each camera. This modality is referred to as camera ID. The underlying process for estimating and matching camera IDs is now well established, and its robustness has been studied under a variety of processing. However, the effect of in-camera downsizing on camera ID verification has not yet been methodologically addressed. In this work, we investigate limitations imposed by built-in camera downsizing methods and tackle the question of how to obtain a camera ID so that attribution is possible with lower resolution media. For this purpose, we developed an application that gathers photos and videos at all supported resolutions by controlling camera settings. Analysis of media obtained from 21 smartphone and tablet cameras shows that downsizing of photos by a factor of 4 or higher suppresses PRNU pattern significantly. On the contrary, it is observed that source of unstabilized videos can be verified quite reliably at almost all resolutions. We combined our observations in a camera ID verification procedure considering downsized media.