Sex determination from the radiographic measurements of calcaneus*
Uzuner, Muhammet Bora
Sancak, İbrahim Tanzer
Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi
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Objectives: The main reason why the calcaneus is chosen for the sex determination is due to its solid structure and resistance to postmortem changes. The comparison of calcanei in radiographies ensures the determination of the sex of corpses whose sex is unknown. A number of skeletons that have been studied as part of the sex determination studies, as well as the variability extents of the male and female samples in the physical and forensic anthropologies which deal with the analysis of the past and present biodiversity, provide information for the observation of data like age, height and sex that are essential for identification. Methods: In this study, we used the radiographies of patients in the Radiology Department of TOBB University of Economics and Technology Hospital. A total of 143 individuals (including 66 male and 77 female patients) whose calcanei were anatomically normal were involved in the study. The participating individuals were divided into three groups: Group 1 consisted of individuals born in and before 1970, Group 2 consisted of individuals born between 1971 and 1985, and Group 3 consisted of individuals born in and after 1986. Sex distribution was similar in each of the three age groups. Metric and non-metric methods were used in the process of identification held with the aim of sex distinction. Metric measurements were made for eight parameters of the calcaneus, e.g. maximum width, body width, maximum length, minimum length, height of the facies articularis cuboidea, tuber angle, front angle and the tuber plantar angle. Results: The maximum, minimum and average values of the conducted measurements were obtained. In each of the age groups, differences were observed between the metric lengths of the female and male parameters. Groups 1 and 2 showed similarities in the angular (alpha, beta, sigma) lengths and Group 3 showed similar values in alpha and sigma angles. A statistically significant difference was observed in the beta angle of Group 3. When all of the measurements of the three groups were compared, the maximum height, the minimum height and alpha angle showed similarities, whereas in other parameters a statistically significant difference was observed. Conclusion: This study reveals the importance of calcaneus in the sex determination and suggests that it can be used as an alternative method in the forensic anthropology and forensic sciences.