Hopf bifurcations in a class of reaction-diffusion equations including two discrete time delays: An algorithm for determining Hopf bifurcation, and its applications
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We analyze Hopf bifurcation and its properties of a class of system of reaction-diffusion equations involving two discrete time delays. First, we discuss the existence of periodic solutions of this class under Neumann boundary conditions, and determine the required conditions on parameters of the system at which Hopf bifurcation arises near equilibrium point. Bifurcation analysis is carried out by choosing one of the delay parameter as a bifurcation parameter and fixing the other in its stability interval. Second, some properties of periodic solutions such as direction of Hopf bifurcation and stability of bifurcating periodic solution are studied through the normal form theory and the center manifold reduction for functional partial differential equations. Moreover, an algorithm is developed in order to determine the existence of Hopf bifurcation (and its properties) of variety of system of reaction-diffusion equations that lie in the same class. The benefit of this algorithm is that it puts a very complex and long computations of existence of Hopf bifurcation for each equation in that class into a systematic schema. In other words, this algorithm consists of the conditions and formulae that are useful for completing the existence analysis of Hopf bifurcation by only using coefficients in the characteristic equation of the linearized system. Similarly, it is also useful for determining the direction analysis of the Hopf bifurcation merely by using the coefficients of the second degree Taylor polynomials of functions in the right hand side of the system. Finally, the existence of Hopf bifurcation for three different problems whose governing equations stay in that class is given by utilizing the algorithm derived, and thus the feasibility of the algorithm is presented.